Causes of Naxalism :-
- Many tribal people are not given their due in forest resources causing the loss of their livelihoods. Government is allotting natural resources to industries, which were erstwhile belongs to tribal people. This created frustration in the local people and is encouraging them to join Left wing extermisim, i.e Naxalism.
- Unequal development, poverty are the major influences on people joining Naxalist movements.
- Development projects like construction of dams by government are displacing lakhs of people. Majority of them belongs to Scheduled Tribes. Rehabilitation procedures are not upto the mark. This is creating marginalization of tribals and is encouraging to join in violent movements.
Effects of Naxalism :-
- Decades of unrest in Naxal areas of Chattisgarh, Odisha, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Madya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharastra and Telangana.
- Many Police, Naxals and commoners died in the fights between Naxals and the government.
- Areas affected by Naxalism remained underdeveloped due to the clashes between Naxals and the government.
- Vested interests using Naxal movement to overthrow government and is creating more violence.
Government measures to control Naxalism :-
- Government is providing incentives to encourage naxals to surrender and to return to the mainstream.
- Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA), 1996 provides power to Gram Sabhas to take decisions on the use of the natural resources in their villages.
- Indian government is conducting meetings to the ministers and officials of the Naxal affected areas.
- ‘Tribal Advisory Council‘ studies on the welfare of tribal people and advises Governor on tribal issues.
What still needs to be done :-
- Still many tribal areas are underdeveloped and are deprived of basic infrastructure. Government should take measures to improve the infrastructure in those areas and needs to create livelihood opportunities.
- Government should provide them access to forest resources. Their traditional knowledge on forest resources help our economy as well.
- Displaced people due to developmental projects need to rehabilitated well. After rehabilitation, they should be provided with sustainable livelihoods.
- Dileep Singh Bhuria’s committe recommended that 50% of the ownership of developmental projects must be assigned to the local people. This needs to be implemented.
What is Naxalism :-
- In the late 1960s, Naxal movement started in the ‘Naxalbari‘ village of West Bengal as a protest against oppression of landless peasants by landlords.
Naxalism should not be seen as a mere internal security problem. Instead it should be treated as a societal, political and developmental issue. Indian government should work more to earn the tribal people’s trust.
Afterwords :- What is your opinion on this topic? Express your thoughts in the comment section below.
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