Main disputes between India & China:

  • India & China have border issues mainly at Aksai Chin & Arunachal Pradesh. The border dispute is the main reason for the Indo-China war in 1962, and the Doklam standoff in 2017.
  • China has been developing infrastructure along with LAC. As of 2022, it is confirmed that China is building a second bridge over the Pangong Tso. This bridge can carry tanks and facilitate faster movement of military forces between the north and south banks of the lake.
  • China’s growing influence in the Solomon islands after signing the security framework agreement is increasing China’s role in the South Pacific region. The agreement is likely to have far-reaching consequences for much of the world, particularly since several shipping lanes connecting the US and its allies run through the region.
  • China’s ever-increasing influence over ASEAN countries is a big concern for India. In 2021, China–ASEAN trade accounted for US$878.2 billion, outstripping India–ASEAN trade, which stood at US$78 billion.
  • China’s attempts to increase its footprint in the Indian Ocean is a matter of stress for India. Recently, China was successful in docking the Yuan Wang 5—a Chinese spy ship—at Hambantota, Sri Lanka, which was particularly concerning for India.
  • China is trying to encircle India by establishing its military and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean, which is famously called as String of pearls theory. This string of pearls is a threat to India’s national security. 
  • India is trying to restrict China’s monopoly over the South China sea because it is one of the main trade routes. Thereby South China sea became one of the main issues between India & China.
  • It has been reported that Chinese smartphone manufacturers are not following the taxation norms in India. This means Chinese companies are taking advantage of our market to illegally transfer money to China.
  • China is maintaining good relations with Pakistan. It is building the most advanced naval warships for Pakistan, and it is also selling weapons to Pakistan. As a result of this, India has national security concerns. And as a part of the Belt & Road initiative, China is building infrastructure projects in Pakistan, which is called as China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) – This CPEC passes through Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir. India is not ok with it because of security concernsSo this became another dispute between India & China. 
  • There are water issues between both countries. China started projects to divert Brahmaputra water from flowing into India. This is one of the major threats to India from China. 
  • China is blocking India from entering into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). This is another issue between India & China. 
  • There is huge trade deficit between India & China. In the fiscal year 2021-22, there is a $72.9 billion dollar trade deficit in China’s favour. 
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 On the positive side:

  • Despite having differences, India & China has been maintaining good relations. Even in ancient times, there was a good relationship between India & China. This can be evident in the presence of Buddhism in China. Buddhism spread from India to China.
  • India was the first non-communist country to recognize communist China in 1950.
  • For peaceful co-existence, both countries signed the Panchsheel agreement in 1954Panchsheel means Five principles of peaceful co-existence.
  • India & China share common interests like eliminating terrorism, developing Asia etc. That is why both countries are part of regional cooperation organizations such as BRICS, Shangai Co-operation Organization (SCO), G20 etc. 
  • Both countries have good trade relations.


Maintaining good relations is important for both countries. India has done so much to improve bilateral relations with China, but more efforts are needed from China’s side.

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