Farm Bills 2020 – Pros, Cons & Challenges

Farmer bills - Pros, Cons & Challenges


  • On 20th September 2020, Parliament passed three farm bills, which created protests in the country.
  • The three bills are –
    • Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill‘, 2020 – ‘One Nation-one market’ concept was introduced to allow farmers to sell the produce anywhere in the country.
    • Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill‘, 2020 – Contract farming empowers farmers to engage with wholesalers, exporters etc. so that they will get the price assurance before sowing the crop.
    • Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill‘, 2020 – This bill removed pulses, oilseeds, onions and some other products from the essential commodities list, and thereby the restrictions on the storage of these items will be removed.


  • One nation – one market can end the monopoly of ‘Agricultural Produce Market Committees‘ (APMCs). APMCs criminalises setting up of other competing markets. Some states made it mandatory for farmers to trade with only APMC-licensed traders. With Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce bill, farmers can sell the produce as per their choice. So the problem of middlemen, which is one of the main loopholes of APMCs will be eliminated.
  • In some states, there is a surplus of some vegetables and fruits, whereas in some other states there is less supply and more demand for them. Through one nation-one market, corporate companies can bridge this gap benefiting the consumers.
  • It will attract private investments in the agricultural industry. Private investments can improve the infrastructure of the agricultural sector, which can lead to its modernization. The competition to buy the produce can fetch better prices for farmers. They may even come to the farmers to take the produce, saving the transport costs for farmers.
  • Contract farming is helpful for farmers because they will get price assurance beforehand. Some companies provide seeds, fertilisers and other requirements too, which will reduce the burden of input costs for farmers.
  • Essential commodities bill, 2020 can help in stabilising the prices. For example, if the onion supply is more than the demand, they can store them to prevent the price fall. This will also improve the cold storage facilities in the country.


  • The process of passing the bills is not democratic. Agriculture and trade are state subjects, but the states are not consulted before passing the bills. The main people for whom the bills are made – farmers were also not given the opportunity to voice their concerns. Even in the parliament, clear voting was not conducted. They passed the bills on a mere voice voting.
  • APMCs are very helpful for small farmers not just to sell the produce but also to know the prices & production choices. Many states have amended the APMC acts to make it more liberal. The passing of farm bills 2020 may weaken the APMC system and hence can become a disadvantage to small farmers.
  • There is no guarantee that the farmers’ income will be increased by these bills. If we take the example of Bihar, when the state abolished APMCs in 2006, farmers got lower prices for their produce than the Minimum Support Price (MSP). So, agricultural economists are suggesting that it is important to strengthen the APMCs, instead of transferring the responsibility to private entities.
  • One nation – one market may not be much useful to small farmers, because transporting the produce requires more expenditure than selling them at the nearest APMC.
  • Contract farming may turn farmers into slaves.
  • Removing the restrictions on the storage of some foodgrains may lead to more imports at cheaper prices affecting the domestic farmers. And big businesses may store the foodgrains to increase the prices artificially.
  • Unless the prices are regulated by the government, the market will go into the hands of big businesses putting both the farmers and the consumers at the risk of exploitation.


  • There is a mistrust in farmers on the government for passing the bills without debate. Implementing the laws in these circumstances will be a challenge
  • As the restrictions on storing some products are removed, imports of those products may increase. So, protecting domestic farmers from such imports will also be a challenge.


The way the bills are passed created mistrust in farmers on government sidelining the positive sides of the bills such as the opportunity to modernise the Indian agricultural sector. It is the responsibility of the government to take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills.

Moreover, the main thing to do to ensure the betterment of farmers is strengthening the government market spaces – APMCs and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

Your Turn…

Do you think Farm Bills 2020 can increase the income of farmers? Express your thoughts through the comment section below. And subscribe to our blog to read answers to the trending GD topics.


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  1. According to me, no farmers will be going to benefit from three farm bills. I would like to say one thing like in contract farming there is a chance for the exploitation of consumers. I will explain it say for example if the farmer gets agreement on the price by a corporate firm high price for his produce before sowing the crop. there is a natural disaster affected produce before the harvesting of the crop. fare enough the problem will begin from here, the corporate firms are buying the produce from the farmer as on the agreement. After buying the all produce from the farmers and it would be stored in cold storages. after that corporate firms create a declining supply and develop high demand in the market for the particular product artificially. it will show the effect on both farmers and consumers. farmers buy their own produce at a higher cost. here most of the consumers affected. finally, one more point is if the market price for particular in Bangladesh is high compared to our country so the corporate will export the produce into Bangladesh why means there is a high market price for a particular product.

  2. According to me Govt. Passed the three Bill’s to take care the farmers but how much farmers will get benefit there is doubt. One market one nation may be farmers will incur more profit but we know some of the states there some of the crops are huge production as a result that areas people can purchase the price little less if farmers sales there produce where production is less then state people will not be able to purchase, for example in West bengal potato production much than other state if west Bengal farmers will sales their total produce to the other state then west Bengal people will have to purchase potato in a high price so Govt is not thinking for common people how they will manage. Secondly private organizations and corporate sector can invest their money in agriculture sector. As a result famers before sowing the plantation they have to commitment to the organizations. Earlier years we have seen farmers couldn’t have got money to sales their produce but middleman they used to earn more money and right now private organizations and corporate sector will incur profit and farmers will not. Thirdly govt removed pulses, edible oil, potato, onion etc from essential commodities. According to me these all are not essential commodities ? Then poor and middle class people will not use thses products ? So govt is not taking care of the common people rather govt is taking care of industrialist and corporate sector.

    1. I think the laws passed are olosh but there are some inherent flaws in it firstly there should be a regulatory body( consisting of dm, 30percent corporate mebers ,40percent farmering expersts,40percent farmers) which ensures that farmers get price for their own producE and rhe contract is followed.the same body must see that their is strengthening of APMC and it’s msp.they sholud ensure that all the products are bought by the gov coming in apmcs.the msp in the APMC will decide the price in the market.but i donot support msp in free market as that would destroy the whole meaning of this reform

  3. Here, I want to add some more points in cons –
    1) These laws will make India’s farming sector a puppet of private agencies. As, contract farming is being encouraged, it is good only upto some extent. Private agencies will provide some profit to farmers and further, to earn more profit, farmers will increase use of fertilizers which will affect environment, soil health as well as consumers’ health adversely.
    2) Hoarding has been allowed by these bills, so now, markets will be controlled by these hoarders only. They will able to increase and decrease the price of agri products according to their will.
    3) the way in which these bills have been passed, although a member asked for clear voting yet bills were passed by voice voting. This process is against the spirit of our constitution.

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